This municipality is located in a large sedimentary basin coal, which is exploited by transnational corporations signing extrangeras Cerrejon, also consists of a flat alluvial plain between the Rio Rancheria and the bajiplanicie guajira, and also by the uplands of the western flank of the Serrania del Perija and the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Bordered to the north and east Maicao and Venezuela Fonseca to the south and southwest with Hatonuevo, on the west and Hatonuevo Riohacha.
At the time of indigenous rule, these lands were inhabited by kariachiles, Wayuu (or peasants) and kusinas (and kitchens). Under Spanish colonial rule, these lands were not dominated by any colonial power so regal. By the early sixteenth century European expeditions traverse the territory by the Rancheria River, which they called The Axe. The invasion and occupation of their lands were under the jurisdiction of the Province of Rio Hacha.
During the nineteenth century belonged to the Province of Padilla, then in full at the Sovereign State of Magdalena, in the federal Colombia. In 1911 is integrated into the station in La Guajira, sub-national entity to which it has owned for its history as a Municipality and the Department.
Today, by act of the Departmental Assembly of La Guajira, 19 March 2000 stands the Municipality, comprising territories of the Municipality Fonseca and Maicao.
The town of Barrancas was founded in 1664, when the Spanish were present in this territory. Settled in the region of Valledupar, established a business relationship with the town of Riohacha, this activity the Spanish made their voyages, carrying large mule trains of pack animals, for this reason and considering the rest of them made their stops in the territory now occupied by the municipality of Barrancas and later leave for the mall.
This motivated the Indian settlement known as “Cariaquiles” who lived on the sides of the canyons in this area, give now known around the Rio Rancheria and additionally also originated the name of the settlement known as St. Joseph of the Canyons, name that was erected in honor of patron saint San Jose. Later in 1672 Barrancas was categorized parish, and happened to be the municipality in 1892, and jurisdiction of the Department of Magdalena Grande. In 1954 came to form the quartermaster of La Guajira, the same as in 1965 eventually became the now called the Department of La Guajira.
Its northern border Hatonuevo Township, east with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, on the west by the municipalities of Riohacha and Fonseca and Fonseca also south
Also known as Yaharo. Dibulla Township bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea on the south by the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta to the borders of the department of Cesar, on the east by the municipality of Riohacha its limits demarcated by Tapia and Rios Corual, due to its location , is a fertile territory with several pristine rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea, making it accessible by road. It has beaches, emphasizing the one located at the mouth of Jerez. It also has the lush landscapes of the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Due to its location in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the municipality has all climates Dibulla that are staggered according to altitude calls lowlands, temperate and cold. The first is located to 1,000 meters. And with temperatures of 40 ° C in the valleys of the rivers Palomino, Jerez and Enea and 24 º C in the foothills of the Sierra. The temperate lands are located between 1,000 and 2,400 meters.
With temperatures ranging between 24 º C and 17 ° C. The lands are cooler between 17 ° C and 6 º C. Above is the moors bordering on the snow. The different forms of relief of the mountains that form the territory and the different orientations of the same as dim and modify it causing local modifications where northeast winds affect northern hemisphere, which the dibulleros called the Northeast.
Dibulla Heritage, located at 2.5 km Trunk Road to the Caribbean of the Municipal head.
Beaches Dibulla Jerez river mouth, mouth of the river Canas
It has countless beaches, highlighting the river mouths Jerez, also has the lush landscapes of the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Along the beach there are many restaurants where you can taste the delicious and varied seafood, such as rice shrimp cocktail, fried snapper, and all kinds of seafood.
Maziruma Recreation Center
Located 100 meters from the entrance and 74 miles Dibulla Riohacha. Recreation Center with cabins, swimming pools and numerous playing fields, also provides services in restaurants.
Spa El Bosque La Poza
Township of Mingueo, five minutes of Dibulla. The river is clear and dramatic Cañas, as it has many stones. On its banks there are leafy trees. It is a resort visited by many tourists.
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
The mountain to the sea the world’s highest (5775 meters, peak Bolivar and Columbus). There are born thirty rivers, among which are the largest in the department: Jerez Dibulla Enea or Tapias, Shrimp, Rancheria, Palomino, San Salvador, width, among others. Declared by UNESCO biosphere reserve. It is also national nature reserve, forest reserve and indigenous reserve.
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta has an area of 17,000 km2, is one of the departments of Cesar, Magdalena and La Guajira, shows the latter to its southeastern slope, representing wildlife refuges. It houses tropical elements of Andean origin arrived there from the Serrania de Perija (birds and vertebrates).
pink flamingos and Dibulla
Located between the village and the river Camarones Tapias. You can take the Core of the Caribbean to Riohacha and thence to Shrimp. Area: 7,000 hectares
Temperature: 27 º C. Marshes: Chamomile, Laguna Grande, swamp and Tocoromanes Broken Vessel.
One of the first signs of regional integration occurred in 1976 when Miss Amparo Padilla organized a festival to integrate neighboring villages, attended by people who Monguí Shrimp and presented with their candidate and was elected the representative of Monguí: Nalia Brito
National: dibullero, dibullera, dibulleros
A PIECE OF HEAVEN DISTRACTION THAT GIFT TO THE CREATOR GUAJIRA BIG MEN BABY BORN TO SERVE THEIR COUNTRY DEAR. IS THE STAR OF THE DEPARTMENT, THE PARADISE BUILT HERE GOD GREW AND TALENT TODAY MEN ARE PROUD OF OUR REGION.
According to historical data, was founded by Antonio Maria Vidal Barranquero in 1845. Because of its location right of the Rio Rancheria, has fertile land favoring high production of food crops and large dairies that supply the domestic and foreign markets.
This town is known for its lush vegetation of trees such as horejero, laurel oak and reaching a height of 5m. The area is celebrated with honor and pride the “Festival de los Laureles” to highlight the beauty of this tree production.
It occupies a strategic position it holds a promising future with the implementation of the major highway, Distraccion – Tomarrazón – Florida – Riohacha coming shorten distance to the capital of the department of La Guajira, which is to promote not only the South of the department, also those of Valledupar, encrypted with the hopes in this vital artery.
El Molino, with its own identity
The history of El Molino, can be divided into three: the time when they were known to be a town without law, the strongest prevailed, it was then called “The western Colombia,” with this qualifier made history for the better by the respect they had for worse by fear and fear that any miller awoke. But in itself was a typical village where the customs prevailing guajiras were wars between families and each trying to impose its own law. It was an unforgettable time but also sad for this beautiful town in southern Guajira.
The second time he made history in this beautiful and picturesque village to the tune of the master Rafael Escalona, Inspiration and “General Dangond”, which told the story of a warrior of a thousand days in love with a beautiful miller named Olga Zabaleta and the other story that happened to the same captured for eternity with “‘s Wife,” where people wanted to know the fable and fantasy of this beautiful lady called in real life step Eisa Armenta and live firsthand the provincial customs. Not forgetting what it meant to the history of this town such a beloved character, as was the father Serrano. Just as the legendary “Panchico” Zabaleta, thus demonstrating that the handsome also die of old age. El Molino brave, El Molino epic are two stories that were confused in the daily events of his characters and his people.
The time now since its separation from the municipality of Villanueva, occurred January 6, 1990 by a committee headed at the time, Arnold Urbina Aponte, Carlos Arias Ramirez, and Jose Miguel Zabaleta, the late Ethelbert Muñoz, Jaime Gonzalez, Mark Celedon, Grace Vence, among others, which marked its independence yet still obtain the blood, brotherhood and friendship between Villanueveros confused and millers. El Molino today is a town full of total tranquility and peace that contrasts with those days of hatred and rancor Where was the change? In the reflection and the desire of wanting to be a distinct people in the Colombian geography.
A character has had much to do with the change of attitude and attitude of the people of El Molino: the singer of his people, “Beto” Zabaleta without any mistakes. He is an idol of his homeland, of young and old, rich and poor. The best example of this, he gave his land in the month of December 2001 when he rightly paid tribute to his 25 years of artistic life. There could feel all that “Beto” Zabaleta means and has meant to his people dear. Today we can say with all the property of guajira culture that El Molino has its own identity, is a united, noble and kind people who have taken a 180 degree change in the customs of good people. As if echoing the song of “Chico” Bolaño, “Father Serrano” not allowed in the year 2002 that will take their mayor (Yesid Mantilla Zabaleta, of the most beloved of his people) the bandits and outlaws of the period of violence and bloodshed in Colombia.
Today El Molino has excellent professionals leaving his people standing right in efficiency and honesty: Maria Jose Cruz Zabaleta, who holds a senior position in the banking sector in the city of Riohacha and Hugues Daza Zabaleta, Judge of the Superior Council of The Judiciary in La Guajira, Estela Zabaleta, who for over fifteen years has played in great competition as Director of The Foundation or Wild Girls Amparo Villanueva Dangond and Soledad Zabaleta as Coordinator of the extension of the University of La Guajira Villanueva, among other things it has done very well. In the Interior, José Luis González, El Molino had three excellent professionals as they were: Jose Cruz Zabaleta, Jesus Munoz Zabaleta Zabaleta and Emilcen Romero. Without forgetting that the former DAS director Emilio Vence Zabaleta Atlantic is an excellent mill, as they say God rewards the patience of the potter and peace building silently as there are facts relevant to the Guajira and the country.
El Molino is a farming village and livestock raising, has a tourist resort called “The Ollita” his church was built by the Spanish – and heritage – is a piece of architecture and features marble mines untapped. It has an agricultural institute in the right direction of Julio Lopez Martinez.
Among its history is having had one of the best mayors in Colombia, Jose Fernando Vence Zabaleta – Monkey Beat, by its management and administrative capacity, ethical and moral man in every sense of the word. El Molino is full of capable and honest people like former Governor Benjamin Lopez Armenta, the doctor and his brother Rafael Zabaleta Reyes, as well as the physician William Zabaleta, Oved Petit Jimenez Franco Zabaleta Zabaleta Aldo, Mark Palomino, The Light Educator Marine Petit, Jhovanny Escobar Acosta, Benjamin and Augusto Arias Morales, Rafael Valle scientist, renowned composer Armando Zabaleta, “the dark” and “King” Zabaleta, the brothers Oscar and Jose Luis Sorza Saltaren, so close to its progress – all framed with their service capacity. Today El Molino is run by Mayor Luis Alfredo Escobar, who is doing things accurately and with good will for his people.
El Molino is a town full of bravery and nobility that deserves our full recognition of the Department and the Caribbean Region.
The municipality of Fonseca is located in the southern part of the Guajira on the road between Uribia Valledupar, Riohacha and Maicao. Rancheria River on its way to the Caribbean Sea through the village of Fonseca, its banks being in many spas and beautiful scenery to delight visitors. The average temperature is 28 ºC.
The main economic activities are agriculture Fonseca and livestock. In the month of August is celebrated in Fonseca’s famous “Festival of Return,” in which contests are held accordion, vallenato unreleased songs, sports competitions and revive traditions and legends of this town. It is so named because it is an invitation to the native people of this county to return at this time of year to share with family and friends to relive the memories of his childhood. Among the sights of Fonseca are Channel, The Haticos, the church of St. Augustine, Bangloma Maya Indian reservation.
Foundation: Some say it was founded and colonized other, there is no precision about it and its founding date. Possibly the Spanish Hidalgo Agustín Fonseca (came to this land in search of adventure and fortune and built huts in the remote Lugo river where change is the main square and flood) and the Italian José Agustín Parodi Ovalle came as part Spanish army. Fonseca recorded in 1773 as jurisdiction of the province of Santa Marta, is constituted as a municipality of the quartermaster of the Guajira June 13, 1829 by Decree 1954.
Founders: The Catalan and Italian Agustin Agustin Fonseca Parody.
limits of the municipality
Its physical boundaries are the north by the divorce of the waters in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta separates Riohacha Township on the south by a line in the rugged mountains on the east by the Sierra de Perija the Motilones or with the Republic of Venezuela, and with signs following specific courses to separate it from Canyon to the east, and not very well defined with San Juan del Cesar west. Fonseca is located east of the meridian 73 just south of latitude to 11.80 meters above sea level south of Guajira department, the Rancheria River crosses from west to east.
The Rio Rancheria who crosses the municipal seat of Fonseca and the township of Hatico has marvelous asides for families to enjoy, with steps that are used as spas here are highlights of the resorts La Guaca and Las Vegas, San Agustin Church and the dam.
Terrestrial: The national highway, Riohacha-Valledupar-Bucaramanga-Bogotá, travels to the city from east to west.
DANCES AND FESTIVALS
Return Festival – Feast of St. Augustine
The return of the native islanders of Fonseca turn makes this return to the nostalgia and memories of old times, with their customs. On the feast of St. Augustine can not miss the celebrations of the Eucharist and the sacraments, the procession and pay promises. Accordion competitions, high-quality unreleased song, and piqueria. Kiosks with traditional food and crafts. Fonseca takes place during the month of August.
Tail Dance of the Open and Closed Tail
It is a popular dance performed by the grandparents in the late fifties and harmonized by a rhythm emanating cumbiambero accordion, box and guacharacas, typical instruments peasant folklore. It is an open ball, preferably in the main square, the sound of drums, clapping of reed and wind instruments gradually, when they met and learned to interpret them.
This dance is loosely coupled, has a rhythm similar to merengue vallenato and melody is sorry, but are told everyday things. Typical of Fonseca and its surroundings in the southern department of La Guajira. The lyrics of the Tail is varied and always mentions some events love between couples, blended with the landscape around them.
The women dress in a long skirt of many colorful cheerful white blouse with sleeves three quarters, with washers on the sleeves and bottom of the bodice and the hem has a vivid color of the skirt and the head well decorated, with living flowers; fit sneakers. The man’s costume consists of white trousers, white long sleeve shirt, hat and cotizas.
Hatonuevo Colombia is a municipality located in the department of La Guajira, 75 km from Riohacha, the departmental capital. It has 13 401 inhabitants (2010) most workers in the coal mine, Cerrejon.
La Jagua del Pilar
La Jagua del Pilar is a municipality in Colombia in the department of La Guajira. Its northern border Urumita Township, east by Venezuela and south by the department of Cesar. It became a municipality in 1998.
“CITY OF THE TURKS” Maicao is a municipality of Colombia in the department of La Guajira founded on June 27, 1927, by Colonel Rodolfo Morales and Thomas Curve it Iguaran, who belonged to the personnel assigned there by the Revenue Receipt of Magdalena . The origin of its name comes from the Wayuu language (maiko-u), meaning eye of corn.
Their territory is generally flat and dry, covered temporarily, according to the periods of rain, the waters of small streams and lower flow rate. It is located at a height of approximately 52 meters above sea level, its municipal limits with the following neighbors: North by the Municipalities of Uribia and Manaure East with the Republic of Venezuela, South and West with the municipality of Albania .
Maicao is a free land port and its main economic activity is related to trade, is known as the commercial window of Colombia, is a bridge between Colombia and Venezuela. For many years was the center of import of products from different countries, although the flow of goods other than Colombia and Venezuela has decreased by now have multiple pathways to Colombia, so the city now has specialized in trade with the neighboring country.
Traditionally, this population has been recognized for its trade, border and have to be one of the largest Arab communities in the country. Maicao was a strong commercial pole in the 80′s and also one of the scenarios where the contraband was evident and recognized. Today this city, located 45 minutes from Riohacha, is still holding a trade based on lingerie, toys, perfumes and clothing. “Maicao is not what it was, now get sweets, although you can sometimes get good things. Before it was different, was the latest in technology, and those things are not,” said Donato Pugliéser, a peasant living in Riohacha.
The city of Maicao is the main center of Arab presence in Colombia with some 6,000 inhabitants. The Arabs, wrongly called “Turks” because they entered late nineteenth century documents of the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey), which then ruled the Middle East, are from Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan and joined the Colombian society bringing and preserving its cultural imprint as are his expressions, food, architecture and religion.
In Maicao Colombians can be seen wearing the costumes of the Middle East themselves and speaking their language, pray six times a day as directed by the Koran, their holy book, and their wives are with blankets to hide their hair. There is also the largest mosque in Latin America, Colombian although Muslims are a minority compared to other African countries. Funny how the peasants, most of them are employees of all Arab merchants, yet is peaceful coexistence … “We’re not involved with them and they do not mess with us: they are very brave,” says a trader paisa which also sells towels, sheets and lines.
Maicao is located at the end at the Department of La Guajira, is located 75 km. distance of 103km Riohacha and Maracaibo, and the ease of the land where it stands, is a strategic point, so for many years has been a bridge between Colombia and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and an area to trade and cultural.
It is known as “Colombia Trade Showcase” for its economic prosperity by establishing a large market supplied by imported products from different markets also have a variety of demographic consists of people of the Wayuu, an Arab colony mostly from Lebanese and Colombian from different regions.
The word comes from the language Maicao Maiko’u Wayuu (Maiki: corn and o’uu: eye), translated means “eye of corn.” The origin of this name is because, in the area of that species are plant crops in rural areas of the city. It is located 52 meters. Above sea level, its average temperature is 28 º C temperature.
Maicao was founded by Colonel Rodolfo Morales and Thomas Curvelo Iguarán, the June 27, 1927. 40.1% of the municipality’s population identify themselves as indigenous, therefore, Maicao is a municipality where the native culture has extensive presence in a multicultural context. The city of Maicao is the main center of Arab presence in Colombia.
The Arabs, wrongly called “Turks” are from Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and Jordan and joined Colombian companies leaving traces of their presence in cultural elements that blend into the local culture (expressions, food, architecture, religion, etc.). The early Arabs were Maronite Catholics in general and found it much easier to mixing with the locals, but the Muslim Arabs, who entered the country from the 70′s, have preserved more jealously guard their identity, especially in response to a culture governed by a religious constitution until 1991. However, Colombian Muslims, especially in Maicao and located in San Andres and Providence, have found it difficult to integrate into the national culture of Colombia.
In Maicao Colombians can be seen wearing the costumes of the Middle East themselves. There is also the second largest mosque in Latin America, Colombian although Muslims are a minority compared to other African countries.
Maicao is a medium sized city in the northeastern border with Venezuela. This is a typical border town, ugly, dirty and sometimes vague. Most travelers arriving in Maicao spend only the time to take a bus or taxi, either to the border and in Venezuela, or, coming from the opposite direction, to Riohacha, Santa Marta and beyond.
If you come across a couple of hours to kill in Maicao and a few pesos in his pocket, the streets around the central square is a street market where you can get all the usual contraband goods. You can also modify their weights in Venezuelan bolivars (or vice versa). Have a good idea of the exchange rate before approaching a broker. Most of them give you an honest guy, but there will always be unscrupulous cracks that try to scam attempt. There are plenty of exchange offices in the center of Maicao, so do not be afraid to walk, if this is the case. Apart from the wheeling and dealing that there is a further attraction worthy of Maicao.
The city has a significant Arab population and is home to the largest mosque in Colombia (and the largest in Latin America outside of Brazil and Argentina). Omar Ibn Al-Khattab mosque looks a little out of place in Colombia, as well as Palestinian flags, who often hang out some of the houses. Omar Ibn Al Khattab mosque, was built in 1997 and offers a place of worship for Muslims living around 2000 in Maicao. Whenever open should not be a problem to have a look inside.
Manaure is a municipality in the Colombian department of La Guajira. Bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, on the northwest by the municipality of Uribia, on the south by the municipality of Maicao and the west by the municipality of Riohacha. Salinas de Manaure. It is a plain flat and gently undulating stony, in the predominantly coastal dunes, lagoons marine clay flats.
The sea is the raw material for the salt industry, based on the municipality’s economy, which produces most of the salt consumed in Colombia. Other economic activities are fishing and tourism. The municipality receives royalties for production and transportation of natural gas reservoir Whale, transported by pipeline.
Alonso de Ojeda was the first navigator who crossed the coast guajiras to 1498, but no landings, as the first to do so was Juan de la Cosa at Cape de la Vela.
Riohacha is the capital of the department of La Guajira, with an almost entirely desert peninsula jutting into the Caribbean Sea in the far north. It is located 1,121 kilometers north of Bogota and 220 km northeast of Barranquilla by land. The surface area of 20,848 km2 and is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the east by the Caribbean Sea and the Republic of Venezuela, on the south by the department of Cesar, and on the west by the department of Magdalena and the sea Caribbean.
Among its events is the famous “Festival and National Dividivi Reign” and “Feast of Our Lady of Remedies”. Its spring tour, their colonial house and its beaches are worth knowing. Its most important geographical features are the Sierra de Agua Fria, the Moors of Chimalongo, Taquiña and Macotama, the hills of Cuba, Bistautama and Bolanos and Carrizal Blades, Caracas, Chivilong¸e, Mico, Guayabital, G¸imalaca , ¸ Sapagang ega, Turumutal and Vainillal.
The aridity of the peninsula makes economic development is slow. It has abundant natural resources that stand between the national coal mining in El Cerrejón. An important item of the economy is livestock: cattle, pigs, horses, mules, donkeys, goats and sheep, exploitation of sea salt in Manaure, and fisheries, especially shellfish, turtles and pearls are done in the traditional way.
The extraction of gas for domestic and industrial supplies Riohacha, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Sincelejo, Guapaté, Sahagun, Cerromatoso, Monteria and numerous towns in the Caribbean region. Agriculture reaches some development in the municipalities of Barrancas, Fonseca, Riohacha, San Juan del Cesar and Villanueva, mainly cotton, corn, sorghum, rice, cassava, beans, sesame, cocoa, coconut, banana, coffee. It is important logging indigo, mahogany, cedar, divi, guaiac, mangrove, oak, calabash. No manufacturing.
The climate of La Guajira, especially in the peninsula, is dry and high temperatures, altered a bit with the sea breeze and the northeasterly trade winds that blow throughout most of the year, the rains are scarce and are generally in the September to November. The department is the wildlife sanctuary of the Flamingos, the national park Macuira natural and national park of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the latter is shared with the departments of Magdalena and Cesar. Indian Reservation has Carraipía.
Riohacha, tourist destination in La Guajira
Riohacha, the capital of the peninsula and the department of La Guajira, is located 1,121 kilometers north of Santa Fe de Bogotá by road, along the Caribbean Sea. The most significant places that tourists can visit are: the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Remedies, the Monument to Francisco the Man and the spring of Tourism, among other attractions.
Among the events held annually highlights the Feast of Our Lady of Remedies and the famous National Dividivi Festival, held in the month of August, in honor of the native tree, which represents one of the main supports of the Wayuu culture. The city has a good deal of craft guajira as hammocks, blankets, hammocks, hats, and other objects, especially prized for their color and quality.
The airport offers daily flights to other cities and three hotels for accommodation, with good food, comfortable rooms at reasonable costs.
Cooled by trade winds from the north, this bridge is located right in the mouth of the River Rancheria. From there you can see a beautiful sunset while you can see to fishermen and indigenous people.
It was built in 1937 and has 12,000 meters in length. On the other is a beautiful pedestrian walkway where tourists enjoy the gentle breeze.
Plaza de Padilla
It is the favorite meeting place for riohacheros to enjoy the sunset. Within its beautiful architecture is a monument to Admiral Padilla.
Monument to Francisco el Hombre
It is located in Round Point Street 15.
Walk to the beach
It extends across the street 1a. (Marine Avenue) and his step you can find small kiosks where visitors can taste delicious ceviche and seafood cocktails.
San Juan del Cesar
The sisal cultivation is significant for the economy of the municipality to be used in the production of bags for packing rice and other products as well as various handicrafts made from this material. It symbolized the event held during the months of July in the village of the Board that is enlivened by outstanding professional arts groups as well as those involved in the different competitions of accordion, the unreleased song, piqueria and crafts.
The municipality of San Juan del Cesar is located between the foothills of the Serrania del Perija and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta along Cesar and Rancheria rivers. Its astronomical position is between 10 ∫ 69 ‘and 11 ∫ 02′ north latitude and between 72 ∫ 31 ‘and 73 ∫ 34′ west longitude, 213 m.
On June 24, 1701 the Sheriff and Captain of militia SALVADOR FELIX PEREIRA ARIAS, founded VILLA DE SAN JUAN BAUTISTA CESAR’S IN THE HILL OF YIYIRIGAK Cesar along the river, where the Cacique Arhuaco “MAROCAZO” built a settlement round base huts and thatched roofs, today about where the old tank of the aqueduct. FELIX SALVADOR ARIAS ARIAS son of FELIX PEREIRA and Dona Josefa, who married in the Valley of Upar. He studied at Cartagena (Spain), where he received the rank of Captain of Militia.
On his return to the Valley of Upar is appointed Sheriff and Captain of Militia Upar Valley by the Governor of the Province of Santa Marta, with a mission to subdue the unruly Indians Tupes, Coyaima, Canopan and Marocazo. In 1700 founded the Holy Spirit (Codazzi), comes back to peace, then moved to the lands of Cacique Canopan (Villanueva), in the Mill works with the construction of the Chapel, and then found the TOWN OF SAN JUAN BAUTISTA’S CESAR. On the day of its founding was accompanied by a group of families who built their homes.
La Villa, by its geographical position was a must for traders from the rest of Upar Valley and Badillo to keep the port of Riohacha. For transportation and marketing of their products using animals in ways of horseshoes. The houses were built in the style of the time and were earnest and Catholic families.
Engaged in raising horses, cattle and goats on the land cultivated get bread and sugar cane for the production of panela, for which slaves were brought to work in the fields and operation of the mills. The first priest was Father Gonzalo Suarez Oñate who built the first church, then came Michael Celedon’s father who was in charge until 1810, then came the Father Rafael Herrero who built another church after the previous fire.
He was also the Pastor Juan Antonio Araujo who by his death he was replaced by Manuel Antonio Davila, who was influential in the lives of Sanjuaneros. In 1946 the colonial church does demolish the majestic temple to build pride in all, then was replaced by Raymond Navarro Rios, who guided the destinies of the parish for 19 years, is named after the Spanish priest Bernavé Arismendi. Note the figure of Bishop Rafael Celedon, great writer and internationally acclaimed poet, born in San Juan.
Our amazing earth, is an exceptional parcel of coastal geography, Caesar crossed the river with little clear water that slide on a soft mattress with white sands, vegetation is made up of prickly pear, arañagatos, thistles and leafy trees as the heart, azulÌsimo sky brightness is prodigy, The beauty of the moon Sanjuanera is unusual landscape that has served to inspire many composers and minstrels of our vernacular music.
Education is one of the best, not only by academics themselves, but also by the rules of civility and well-directed moral education has always had. It is important to highlight the entrepreneurial spirit of Sanjuanero, his spirit of excellence, his great industry, and his gift of friendly people.
In 1531 the town was inhabited by Chimilas and Arhuacos and belonged to the Magdalena Valley. After a difficult settlement, due to the resistance of the natives, were colonized and enslaved. In the year 1770, the Chimilas, the kitchens and the Guajiro is revealed, burning farms, blocked navigation on the Magdalena river and attacked Valledupar.
The population of San Juan del Cesar was founded by Major Felix Salvador Arias in 1701, the Chaplaincy Upar Valley, giving initially the name of San Juan Bautista and Cesar built township in 1954. The Indians of this region were moving to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, where they founded some towns such as Maro-case Ulago, La Peña de los Indios, The Machin, Guanaja, Mamarango and so on. Thus, other settlers were coming from French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German and African, and giving way to the mixing step.
As you can see the evolution of the founding peoples of the south of La Guajira, part of an Indian settlement established as a focus village, based on geographic conditions beneficial to human life, being these two key elements to the formation of parcels, or either of rudimentary farms. These conditions allowed the European historical and Creoles settled there, building villages fully supported both by the church, for the Spanish crown.
It is the largest municipality in the department (7404 square kilometers). Founded in 1953, was capital of the former Special Commission of La Guajira to when it was created as National Quartermaster. 90 percent of its territory is desert except an oasis in the heart: The National Park The Macuira.
In Uribia inhabits most of the Wayuu, the largest indigenous group in the country, comprising more than 40,000 people. There he made his Festival of Culture, Cultural Heritage of Colombia. Uribia has a good hotel, several restaurants and a unique market.
It has an extraordinary mineral wealth: currently being exploited deposits of talc, limestone and salt.
A Uribia, located 104 kilometers from Riohacha (90 minutes long) can be reached in two ways. For the first, take the road to Maicao, 5 miles (10 minutes) and before the period known as La Gloria, is still a secondary route to the left, to Bird, Musichi and Manaure, then splicing by Uribia paved road. The second is taken to the site Maicao and Four Way turns left and continues alongside the railroad tracks. This is the beaten path.
The mobilization of passengers is steadily through collective public service cars, trucks and buses that are taken directly in Riohacha or crossroads in Four Roads.
Wayuu Culture Festival
It takes place in the municipality of Uribia known as the Indian capital of Colombia, in order to highlight and preserve the Wayuu customs. Carried out craft shows, conferences and horseback riding and choosing a beautiful and authentic representative of the Wayuu culture (Majayura).
A week before Lent, they celebrate the festival of Carnival. During those days, people having fun at booths at the sound of drums, throwing cornstarch and taking every Friday precarnaval authentic peasant loaf. The festivities end with the parade through the city embarradores Riohacha and bathroom of these at sea, at dawn.
Festival of Los Laureles
The Festival of Los Laureles is a cultural event, folklore, recreation and civic for dissemination, promotion, recovery and preservation of culture and folklore at its best vallenato. The name was in honor of the trees that adorn the main square, known as Higuitos but also called laurel of India, so the Festival of Los Laureles is named.
Uribia is the city and municipality in the Colombian department of La Guajira. It is the youngest municipality in the department since 2000. Northern area of the Cerrejon coal mines are located in this municipality. The municipality also contains Macuira Mountains mountain range in the middle of which is an isolated mountain range of the low altitude of La Guajira Desert. One third of this mountain range is also a national nature reserve in Colombia
Uribia Township covers most of the northern area of the Guajira Peninsula, the northern most part of South America. Uribia borders north and west by the Caribbean Sea which surround more than half the municipality of Uribia to the borders of this slightly Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the south by the municipality of Maicao and southwest by the municipality of Riohacha.
The high Guajira, is semi-arid clay formations presenting with sparse vegetation such as cactus and other xerophiles. Macuira Serrania de lays in the middle of the upper that features three predominant hill 650 m above sea level such as the Blacktip, the Jarara and La Teta. 
The process of evangelization of the Wayuu people restarted in 1887 with the return of the Capuchin Friars under the reverend friar José María de Valdeviejas. In 1905, Pope Pius X created Vicariate of La Guajira and as primerovicario, the friar Atanasio Vicente one and only Royo in an attempt to “civilize” the Wayuu people.
The friars who created the orphanages for Wayuu children beginning with the Sierrita orphanage built it in the mountains of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in 1903, followed by San Antonio orphanage in 1910 located on the river of Calancala, Nazareth orphanage in the mountains of Serrania de Macuira in 1913 to create a direct influence on the patamana Rancherias of Guarrachal, El Pajaro, of Carazua, Guaraguao of Murumana, Claw and Karraipía. While Nazareth had some control over the villages of Taroa of Maguaipa of Guaseipá and Alpanapause.
The friars constantly visited establishments invited to attend the mass. Educated children in the orphanage Wayuu traditional European customs. Conflicts between the Wayuu people and the Colombian government decreased since then. In 1942 the village of Uribia first celebrated Christmas and New Year’s Eve. 
Uribia was officially founded on March 1, 1935 by Captain Eduardo Londoño Villegas in honor of the Colombian Liberal Party leader Rafael Uribe Uribe, before this the village was named in Chitki Wayuu language. The main square was crated and named after Francisco de Paula Santander one of the leaders of Colombian independence from Spain. 
Capital special commissioner of La Guajira
Uribia became a regional capital city of La Guajira special commissioner until 1954, when the national Intendency La Guajira was created and transferred to the capital Riohacha. 
Uribia is inhabited predominantly by indigenous people regarding Wayuu ethnic group. Cultural activities are directly related to them. The city celebrates the Festival of the Wayuu culture of May 31 to June 1 each year.
Urumita is a municipality in Colombia in the department of La Guajira. Bordered on the north by the municipality of Villanueva, south to the La Jagua del Pilar, the east by the department of Cesar and west by Venezuela. It is located 175 km from the provincial capital, Riohacha.1
It township since 1979. It has several water sources that stand between the river Urumita or “mop” and marquezote. In September, the festival takes place flowers and calagualas. Urumita was founded on October 3, 1785, by Juan Bautista Paddle. From this moment belonged to the municipality of Villanueva at that time belonged to the Department of Magdalena Grande.
This dependence on administrative policy lasted until the year 1971, the year through Ordinance 043 of the Guajira Department was established as an autonomous municipality. However, economic and political reasons the area was converted back to the neighboring township municipality of Villanueva, until January 1, 1979, the date on which, by Ordinance 016 of 1978, regained his capacity municipality, establishing limits geographical and legal independence, this circumstance is confirmed by Order 046 of 1982 and the provisions, later, by the National Constitution of Colombia, 1991.
During the years 1950 to 1970, gives the most dynamic urban growth, related to trade with the northern Guajira and the new pole of development between Barranquilla and Valledupar. At that time, some local entrepreneurs like Narcissus and Cristina Villarreal Vargas Arias Villalobos established the first cotton crop scale, coffee and fruit, and also encouraged the wholesale trade of grain, fabrics and home furnishings.
By that time, around 1950, the first aircraft Urumita known that sailed the skies and landed in one of his pastures, piloted by Florentino Vargas was an Avro Anson plane 625A, the pioneer of commercial aviation in Colombia, Limited National Air Service, Ltd. LANSA, 2 founded in Barranquilla.
The town of Santo Tomas de Villanueva is a Colombian municipality located south of the Department of La Guajira. Your Municipal Center is located in the foothills of the Serrania del Perija. Its population is concentrated mainly in urban areas (although most activity is centered on agriculture and livestock).
As a municipality of origin of related vallenato artists, include Daniel Celedon, Jean Carlos Centeno, Israel Romero (Binomial de Oro), Junior Santiago, Heberth Square (RIP) and Luis Angel “El Papa” Pastor (Carlos Vives companion “), and Gabriel Orangel” the gimmick “Master, The Brothers Zuletas: Poncho and Emiliano, LATIN GRAMMY winners FOR VALLENATO in 2006, and the great Jorge Celedon (The Songo), also GRAMMY LATINO 2007, hence that many describe now “Grammy Cradle” as well as other treasured children Egidio Cuadrado 3 Grammys with Carlos Vives.
The most important cultural event of the municipality is the “Cradle of Accordions Festival” which was declared a cultural and artistic heritage of the nation by means of Law 1052 of 2006, which has been held since 1979 in September. “The folk music is wild” (The Songo), which refers to the ease of villanuevero songwriting, interpret and execute instruments, mostly, to the ear. There are whole families of musicians which are called “Dynasties”.